Tag: Australia

Why Spiny Leaf Phasmids Make Great Insect Pets {and how to make a DIY enclosure!}

How (and why) spiny leaf phasmid insects make fun, easy and educational pets for young kids. They’re a great way to encourage an interest in entomology and a love of nature.

Phasmid Camouflage Insects - why they make great pets and how to care for them

We’ve had pet spiny leaf phasmids (a type of camouflage or stick insect) for about 4 years now. They make awesome pets! Let me share with you why I think they’re awesome pets for kids, and how to look after them easily (and cheaply).

Suitable for

Spiny leaf insects are a great pet option for kids of all ages.

Babies and toddlers can safely watch them inside the enclosure, which can be brought down to their level, and then put back out of reach again. Once they are able to be gentle, they can stroke them or let them walk on their clothing or arm. (My youngest daughter was about 1.5 years old when we first brought phasmids home. She loved them then, and still does now!)

Phasmids are also great for preschoolers. I’ve brought phasmids in to visit preschool on several occasions. The kids can study them through the enclosure, and those brave enough can take turns handling them (with close supervision).

Phasmids make great pets for older kids too – who might take on more of the responsibility of caring for them. My eldest daughter is 7 years old now, and she still loves showing off her pet insects to her friends (although she hasn’t quite taken on the responsibility part yet!)

Toddler holding a spiny leaf phasmid

Having phasmids as pets is a great way to expose kids to biology (the study of living organisms) and entomology (the study of insects) in a caring and nurturing way. They’re safe for little kids to touch, as they don’t bite or sting. Plus, did I mention they’re easy to look after?

But first, in case you’re wondering what on earth phasmids are?

Phasmids are insects that eat leaves, and resemble leaves or sticks for camouflage. There are about 3000 species of phasmid worldwide. Many are referred to as stick insects, stick-bugs or walking sticks. The ones we have are spiny leaf phasmids (also known as Macleay’s Spectre).

Male spiny leaf phasmid nymph

I can show you how to set up a DIY portable phasmid enclosure, for just a few dollars! But before we get into how to look after them, let me tell you a little bit about them – they’re really cool!

adult male spiny leaf phasmid

The {Fascinating} Life Cycle of a Spiny Leaf Phasmid

Spiny leaf phasmids go though an incomplete metamorphosis – that is they have only three stages of their life cycle: egg, nymph and adult. But there’s two really cool things about spiny leaf phasmids: the relationship they have with the ants, and how they can clone themselves! Let me explain….


Adult females lay a single egg, about once a day or so. These eggs have a sweet knob on one end. In the ‘wild’, eggs fall to the ground, where they are picked up by ants, and carried back to their nest. The ants eat the sweet knob (yum!), and leave the rest of the egg in their nest, thus offering the egg protection from predators who might be leery of an ant bite. Ant nests are also sandy, which provides the eggs with the dry environment they need to hatch. Baby nymphs look, and act, very similar to red-headed black ants (but with curlier tails) which is their first form of camouflage.

This relationship with ants is called a “symbiotic relationship”. Both species benefit – the ants gets a free meal, and the phasmids gain protection, an appropriate egg-hatching environment, and initial camouflage.

Four year old holding a spiny leaf phasmid insect egg


Nymph spiny leaf phasmids leave the ants nest and quickly climb a tree, where they’ll spend the rest of their lives. They eat leaves, and drink rain drops or dew. They first molt (shed their outer skin or exoskeleton) when they are a just few days old, and change from looking like an ant, to looking like a dried up old leaf. If scared, they sway, to look like a leaf blowing in the breeze. They continue to grow and molt until they reach adult size.

Baby nymph spiny leaf phasmid insect

Female spiny leaf phasmid nymph

Molted exoskeletons of male and female spiny leaf phasmid insects


Spiny leaf insects change in appearance quite significantly with their last molt. The adult males are dark grey/brown colour, with thin straight bodies and long wings. They can fly short distances. The females are much larger, with thick clay coloured bodies with spiky lumps along their backs, a curled tail and very small wings, which are ineffective, as the females can’t fly. But here’s another cool bit. Adult females lay about an egg a day, but they don’t need a male to fertilise them necessarily, because they’re able to clone themselves, in a process called parthenogenesis. (So cool!) With spiny leaf phasmids, only female offspring can be produced through parthenogenesis. (Fertilised eggs on the other hand, can produce either male or female offspring).

Adult spiny leaf insect (phasmid)

Adult female spiny leaf phasmid insect

But what makes spiny leaf phasmids such great pets?

I’m glad you asked!

One reason they’re great as pets is because they’re safe for little kids to handle. They don’t bite or sting. Their whole defence mechanism is camouflage – so if they get scared, they just sway trying to look like a leaf in the breeze.

Why spiny leaf phasmids make great insect pets, and how to make an easy DIY enclosure

The only tricky thing is that they are rather fragile. You have to teach kids not to use their fingers to pick phasmids up (lest they squish them or tear off a leg), but rather to let the phasmid walk on themselves.

A preschool girl and her pet spiny leaf phasmid insect (adult male)

Phasmids instinctively want to move forwards and upwards, so if you just put your hand (or any other object) slightly above and in front of them, they’ll generally step up of their own accord. And they are very good at hanging on, actually preferring to be vertical or upside down.

Some kids don’t like the feeling of phasmids walking on their skin – it can feel like a tickle (for younger nymphs and males) or feel a bit prickly (for the adult females). Many kids might prefer to just look, tough gently with their finger, or let the phasmids walk on their clothes instead of directly on their skin. If a leg does get torn off (eep!), phasmids can actually regrow their lost limbs (which is kinda cool in an unfortunate way.)

Spiny leaf phasmids make great pets for toddlers

Another reason spiny leaf insects make great pets is that they don’t need much day-to-day care. Once you have your enclosure set up, it takes about 20 minutes, 2-3 times a week to replace their leaves and clean out their enclosure, plus a few seconds a day to give them a quick water spray to drink.

A third reason, is that looking after phasmids encourages kids to love nature! These insects are a great gateway to learning about habitats, life cycles, metamorphosis, the food chain, parthenogenesis, insect body structure, camouflage, and much more!

Spiny leaf phasmids make great insect pets for kids

A fourth reason, is that its really easy to make a light-weight and portable enclosure. Our enclosure is light enough that my 4 year old can hold it on her lap in the car. This means you can take your phasmids with you to visit preschool! It also means you can take your phasmids to a friend’s house for them to pet-sit while you’re on holidays (or you could even take your phasmids on vacation with you.)

How to set up an easy, portable (and affordable) phasmid insect enclosure

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We’ve tried out several different phasmid insect enclosure designs over the past few years, and below is the type we’ve found to be the most effective. This design lets you keep the phasmids indoors, gives easy access to replace the leaves, allows lots of air flow, and is light-weight and portable.

New DIY insect enclosure

You’ll need:

  • A mesh waste paper bin / wastebasket (like this black one – or if you’d prefer fashionable pets, you might prefer to buy one in pink, silver, red, or white!)
  • Basic insect screen mesh (similar to this) and a large rubber band (like these)
  • an upcycled jam jar with a narrow opening (or make a narrow opening by hammering a hole in the centre of the lid)
  • sticky tack (like this)
  • basic water spray bottle (like this)
  • secateurs or pruning shears (like these) and a nearby eucalyptus tree with healthy low-hanging leaves
  • A plastic container partially filled with river sand (or vermiculite), with air holes punched into the lid (optional – only needed if you have adult females and wish to collect eggs)

You’ll probably have many of these items at home already. The only things we had to buy were the a wastebasket and a piece of fly screen mesh, which we picked up from our local hardware store for under $10. Not a bad price for a new pet enclosure, don’t you think?

Before we set our enclosure up, I first hammered a hole in the jar lid (making sure not to leave any sharp edges), so that we’d have a hole large enough to put branches in easily, but not too large that the nymphs might drown. If you want to skip this step, try to find a jar that has a narrow opening at the top.

To make your enclosure:

Fill the jar with water, screw on the lid (if using), and tack the jar to the bottom of the wastebasket. Add fresh branches of leaves.

New phasmid enclosure set up

Cut a large circle of insect screen mesh and secure to the top of the wastebasket with a large elastic band.

Double check that there is enough vertical space in your enclosure for your phasmids to hang freely from a branch while they molt. And then add your insects! The mesh makes it easy for them to climb all over the enclosure, and it enables lots of fresh air.

You’ll need to spray your enclosure with water several times a day. I set my spray bottle to mist setting, and spray straight through the mesh. The phasmids drink the tiny droplet as if they were dew. (Please make sure you use a new or clean water spray bottle – that is, not one that might have had any previous cleaning products inside, or you might poison them!)

Also, speaking of poisoning, remember to not use insect spray anywhere near your enclosure!

Change the leaves every 3 days or so (although you can leave it longer at a pinch), and replenish water in the jar to keep the leaves fresh.

Regularly clean up the phasmid poo (which look like little brown pellets). If you have adult females, you can also collect eggs.  Store the eggs in a plastic container with river sand (or vermiculite, as we use). Add holes to the lid of your container to allow air flow. In spring, leave the container on a windowsill in the sunshine, and spray gently with water every few days, and you might get some nymphs hatching next spring! (Be patient though – some eggs can take up to 2 years to hatch…)

Sorting through phasmid poo for eggs

Spiny leaf phasmid eggs amongst poo pellets (scat)

Phasmid eggs in vermiculite

Female spiny leaf phasmid insect

Face of an adult female spiny leaf phasmid insect

For more information:

  • The two articles Care of Stick Insects and Leaf and Stick Insects: Order Phasmatodea by The Australian Museum are a great information source for keeping phasmids in a home or classroom environment.
  • ABC’s Creature Features has a Spiny Leaf Insects page with a quick summary on caring for pet phasmids for kids.
  • We received our spiny leaf insects from two friends, both of whom have successfully bred them in their home enclosures. According to the internet you can buy some online here. I’ve also seen some for sale in our local pet stores!

* This post contains affiliate link(s) to similar products used. An affiliate link means I may earn a referral fee or commission if you make a purchase through my link, without any extra cost to you. It helps to keep this little project afloat. Thank you so much for your support.

Learning about Corroboree Frogs

Corroboree frog nature craft idea, to help kids learn about biology, conservation and environmental science.

Cutest mini corroboree frog made from a leaf! Fun (and educational) nature craft idea for kids, to get them interested in the environment, biology and science

Have you heard about the corroboree frogs? The northern corroboree frog and the southern corroboree frog are two tiny Australian amphibians with striking yellow and black markings.

We’ve been learning about these fascinating animals recently, partly because they are so awesome, partly because of the conservation efforts to save them (see below), and partly because of another project.

When I spied some bright yellow leaves in our backyard, I came up with a cool corroboree frog nature craft idea.

But first, let me tell you about these amazing animals.

Cutest mini corroboree frogs, made from leaves! Great way to learn about two endangered species. ~ Go Science Kids

About Corroboree Frogs

  • There are two species of corroboree frog – the Southern Corroboree Frog and the Northern Corroboree Frog.
  • Both frogs are tiny (2.5-3cm long), with bright yellow and black markings. Of the two, the southern corroboree frog is slightly larger, with brighter markings.
  • Their skin is poisonous! They are the only frogs to produce their own poison, rather than obtaining it through their diet. This poison is secreted from the skin as a defence. The bright colours warn potential predators.
  • They live in, and around, seasonal wetlands in the Australian alps. They are only active in the warmer months.
  • They walk, rather than jump. And they make a squelch noise, rather than a croak. You can hear a recording of their call here.
  • They eat ants and other small insects.
  • The northern corroboree frog and southern corroboree frog are listed as endangered and critically endangered. Recently there were fewer than 200 southern corroboree frogs left in the wild.
  • Their rapid decline is due to a disease caused by the amphibian chytrid fungus, hindering the ability of the frogs to breathe through their skins. Without intervention, there is a real risk these frogs would become extinct.
  • Captive breeding colonies of corroboree frogs are being successfully maintained at the Amphibian Research Centre, Taronga Zoo, Melbourne Zoo, Healesville Sanctuary and Tidbinbilla Nature Reserve.
  • Over 2,000 southern corroboree frog eggs have been released to Kosciusko National Park, and over 2000 northern corroboree frog eggs have been released to the Brindabella Ranges bordering the ACT and NSW. This program aims to maintain frog populations long enough for scientists to develop a cure and/or allow enough time for potential evolution of resilience to this disease.
  • It’s not just corroboree frogs that are affected by this fungus – it’s associated with widespread amphibian decline around the world. The Corroboree Frog Recovery Program contributes valuable knowledge to similar programs around the world, with the hope of finding a global solution.
  • You can find out more about Corroboree Frogs and conservation efforts here.

Corroboree frog leaf craft

How to make a Corroboree Frog leaf craft

(Note: affiliate links included below)

We used:


What to do

  1. Find bright yellow and greenish-yellow leaves in your garden.
  2. Cut out a tiny frog shape. Make the bright yellow leaf frog about 3cm (for the southern corroboree frog), and the greenish-yellow leaf frog about 2.5cm (for the northern corroboree frog).
  3. Paint on black eyes (or draw on with the fine-tipped marker)
  4. Paint black lines from head to the tail. (Leave more yellow space between the lines on the southern corroboree frog). Let dry.
  5. Coat with sealer (optional).

Cutting out a northern corroboree frog leaf

I made the northern corroboree frog first, cutting it out from a small yellowish leaf. Cutting something this small is tricky!

Adding stripes to the northern corroboree frog leaf

Initially I tried drawing on the black stripes, until I realised that my fine tipped permanent marker was out of ink! Doh! So instead, I dipped the tip into black acrylic paint and carefully painted on the stripes. (You could use anything with a fine tip, like a toothpick, as your painting tool.)

Adding stripes to the northern corroboree frog leaf

Next I cut out the southern corroboree frog from a larger, brighter yellow leaf. I painted on the eyes, and then some stripes.

Adding stripes to the northern corroboree frog leaf

Once they were dry, I added a coat of mod podge sealer, just to protect it a little from small hands, as I knew the kids would want to play with them when they got home from school. As they dried, they curled a little bit, as leaves tend to do.

Southern corroboree frog leaf craft

Tiny leaf southern corroboree frog craft

I think they look quite realistic! It’s not til you turn it over and see the underside that it’s obvious they are made from a leaf.

Back of the southern corroborree frog leaf craft

Suitable for

This craft requires advanced fine motor skills. Older kids (7+ year olds) may be able to do it for themselves. Younger kids will likely need an adult to help, especially with cutting the leaves.

For more biology activities, you might also like:

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* This post contains affiliate link(s). An affiliate link means I may earn a referral fee or commission if you make a purchase through my link, without any extra cost to you. It helps to keep this little project afloat. Thank you so much for your support.

Visiting Wildlife Habitat Port Douglas with Kids

Heading to Port Douglas, in Australia’s Far North Queensland, with kids? The Wildlife Habitat is a fun excursion idea, to incorporate animal biology into your holiday. Well worth a visit, or three!

Tips for visiting Wildlife Habitat Port Douglas with little kids

Wildlife Habitat

Open: Daily from 8.00am – 5.00pm, except Christmas Day.

Cost: Adults $34, Children (4-14 years) $17, Family $85. These prices are all for a 5 consecutive day pass. Click here for more information.

Location: Port Douglas Rd, Port Douglas. Click here for map. There’s plenty of free (but mostly uncovered) parking available out the front. There is also a shuttle bus service to and from Port Douglas for a small fee. Read More Visiting Wildlife Habitat Port Douglas with Kids

Visiting Sea Life Sydney Aquarium with Kids

Sea Life Sydney Aquarium is a public aquarium located in Darling Harbour, an inner-city precinct of Sydney, Australia. It features a huge variety of Australian marine and fresh water aquatic creatures from various Australian water habitats, including the world’s largest Great Barrier Reef display, outside of the reef itself, of course! There are lots of sharks, sting rays, dugongs (awesome!), and much more.

Visiting Sea Life Sydney Aquarium with Kids - fun and education outing for the whole family

Sea Life Sydney Aquarium

Open: Open 9.30am – 6.00pm (last entry 5.00pm) daily, 365 days a year. Weekends and school holidays often stay open a little later. It looks like they close certain exhibits from time to time (see here for more details), so make sure to check so you don’t miss out on seeing the dugongs. I’d highly recommend going outside of peak periods as it can become very crowded.

Cost: Adults $40, Children (under 4 years) FREE, Children (4-15 years) $28, Family $136. You can save 10-30% off these prices if you buy tickets online beforehand, and you might be able to get a midweek special or discounted combo deal for several Sydney attractions.

Location: The aquarium is located on the city side of Darling Harbour, near King Street Wharf. Click here for map. There are train, bus, ferry and light rail options, or you can park in a parking station nearby. Click here for public transport and parking station information.

Suitable for: 3-100 year olds!

The best bits: The aquarium is HUGE. The variety of marine and fresh water creatures is ah-maz-ing, especially the dugongs.

The worst bits:  Tickets are expensive. There’s no onsite parking. It can be very crowded, especially over holiday periods. It’s easy for little kids to get lost inside. Read More Visiting Sea Life Sydney Aquarium with Kids

Visiting Manly Sea Life Sanctuary {with kids}

Manly Sea Life Sanctuary is a public aquarium located in the Northern Beaches area of Sydney, Australia. It features (adorable!) little penguins, sharks, giant stingrays, sea turtles and other marine life.

Visiting Manly Sea Life Sanctuary with Kids


Manly Sea Life Sanctuary

Open: Daily from 9.30am – 5.00pm (last entry 4.30pm), except Christmas Day.

Cost: Adults $25, Children (under 4 years) FREE, Children (4-15 years) $17, Concession $20, Family $53+. You can save a minimum of 10% off these prices if you buy tickets online beforehand. There are discounted combination deals too if you intend to visit several Sydney attractions within a 30 day period.

Location: West Esplanade, Manly, NSW, Australia. Click here for map. Click here for transportation and parking information.

Suitable for: 1-100 year olds!

The best bits: The sea life is amazing, especially the little penguins. Manly has some lovely beaches to explore, and catching the ferry there is fun!

The worst bits: Parking is tricky. The inside of the aquarium is not wheelchair or pram accessible. Read More Visiting Manly Sea Life Sanctuary {with kids}

Planet Earth Craft

Planet Earth Craft for Kids - fun earth day activity for preschoolers

There’s a lead in story to this post (which I’ll fill you in on later), but for now I just wanted to share this fun Planet Earth Craft that Bee made, using real dirt from our backyard! This was a fun, crafty activity to learn about our wonderful planet, as a spherical mass of water and land floating in space. Big concepts for a 3.5 year old!

Easy Earth Craft for Kids, using real dirt. Fun Earth Day activity.

Read More Planet Earth Craft