Category: Biology

Fun nature science + art idea for kids: how to make a cool car painting, using mushroom spore prints for wheels, and learn about mushroom biology!

Incorporating mushroom spore prints in kids art

Ever since we first tried making mushroom spore prints, we’ve been dreaming up fun ideas to incorporate spore printing into art or craft activities. Our mushroom monkeys were our first idea, and this mushroom spore print car painting is our second  – and I think it turned out quite well!
Mushroom spore print car art for kids

Suitable for

Try this art + science activity with kindergarten or primary (elementary) school aged kids. Bumble Bee was 7.5 years old when we did this at home.


Science + Art - paint wheels with mushroom spore prints

How to create a mushroom spore print car artwork

Read More Science + Art: Mushroom Spore Print Car Painting

Cool science craft idea for kids – make DIY articulated skeleton’s hands, and learn about hand bone structure! (They make a great Halloween prop too!)

How to make an articulated skeleton hand

You might remember back when Jewel and I first made our DIY articulated hand models? They were so much fun, and a great way to explain to Jewel how tendons work.

My younger daughter Bumble Bee was too young to join in at the time, but now that she’s a big 7 year old, we decided to make another set, this time with a Halloween-twist!

Skeleton hands

Suitable for

This is a little tricky and will need adult assistance for 5-6 year olds, but 7-9 year olds might be able to do most of it themselves. Bumble Bee had just turned 7 years old here.

Skeleton hands DIY

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Bumble Bee was so excited to make these skeleton hands. With Halloween coming up, I thought it would be awesome to use them to wave to trick-or-treaters.

Bumble Bee tells me she wants to use them as part of her DIY Dementor costume. (She wants to go as a Dementor for Halloween, and Jewel wants to go as Bellatrix Lestrange – they’re both a bit Harry Potter obsessed at the moment!) I’m not quite sure how the rest of the Dementor costume is going to work out, but we still have another week or so to work on the idea!

Either way, I think these skeleton’s hands are pretty neat. And they’re a great way to learn what the bones in the human hand are called, and how tendons work to make them move….

Here’s how we made them…

How to make an articulated skeleton hand

We used:

Trace around your hand using a pencil Cut out the hand shape
Step 1: Use a lead pencil to lightly trace your hand on craft foam and cut it out.

Gluing on the cut straws

Step 2: Cut paper straws into small sections to represent bones. Glue these on.

A few tips:

a) check which way your foam hand is facing before you glue on your straws. We accidentally made two right skeleton hands instead of one right and one left – oops!

b) make sure you leave a large gap between each straw section – otherwise you won’t be able to bend your skeleton’s fingers later on.

c) leave small space for the chopstick in between the hand bones – this will be added in the next step.

You might also notice that we tried colouring the straws black for one of the hands to see how this would look. The idea was that the black straws could hide how the fingers bent. But personally I like how the plain white straws look better. But if you prefer the ‘incognito’ black straws, you could use black marker to colour your straws first (or buy black straws).

Step 3: Paint a chopstick black, and glue this between the straws on the hands. This will act as your handle later on. Leave to dry.

Threading yarn tendons through the straw bones

Step 4: Cut five long pieces of wool. Tie a pony bead to the end of each piece. Then thread each piece through one of the four fingers / thumb, and through the corresponding straw in the hand. A large-eye blunt needle makes this process easier, but you can do it without this if you don’t have one. Leave long ‘tails’, as these are what you will pull on later to bend the fingers and thumb.

Painting on the hand bones

Step 5: Flip the skeleton hands over, and paint bones on the other side using white acrylic paint and a thin paintbrush.

This is, of course, a great chance to discuss what the bones in the human hand are called!

Fun Science Fact

You have three bones in your fingers, but only two bones in your thumbs! These bones are called phalanges.

The tips of your finger and thumb are called distal phalanges. The middle bone of your fingers are called middle phalanges. The lower bone in your fingers and thumb are called proximal phalanges.

The proximal phalanges connect to five longer bones in your hands, called metacarpals.

There are also 8 bones in your wrist called carpals (but we focused mainly on the hand and finger bones this time.)

diy skeleton hand

If you hold the chopstick handle, and tug on the different tails of yarn, you can make the different fingers bend over! The yarn works similarly to how the tendons work in your hand. Can you make your skeleton hand wave? Can you make it hold up just a couple of fingers?

Articulated skeleton or dementors hand

If you’re looking for more Halloween ideas, you might also like to check out the salt crystal ghosts that we made a few weeks ago! (The kids have asked to make them again with their Girl Guide group, so hopefully they’ll work well when done on a 25 x girl scale!)

So far these are the only two Halloween ideas we’ve tried so far, but we’ll add more to our Halloween science page as we try them….
Articulated skeleton hands - fun science craft for kids to make

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Make the cutest monkey puppets, from mushroom spore prints! Fun science craft idea kids can make, and learn about mushroom biology at the same time.

Mushroom monkeys! Cute science craft kids can make & learn about mushroom biology and spore prints

Do you remember when we first tried making a mushroom spore print, using a large field mushroom? I thought we could try this again, using little button mushrooms this time, and use the spore prints to make a cute monkey science craft!

Suitable for

I think this would a fun craft for school-aged kids (say, the 5-9 year old age group). Although, having said that, my 4.5 year old daughter loved helping with this, so maybe this craft could work for some preschoolers too…

How to make Mushroom Monkeys

Read More Science Craft: Mushroom Monkeys!

How (and why) spiny leaf phasmid insects make fun, easy and educational pets for young kids. They’re a great way to encourage an interest in entomology and a love of nature.

Phasmid Camouflage Insects - why they make great pets and how to care for them

We’ve had pet spiny leaf phasmids (a type of camouflage or stick insect) for about 4 years now. They make awesome pets! Let me share with you why I think they’re awesome pets for kids, and how to look after them easily (and cheaply).

Suitable for

Spiny leaf insects are a great pet option for kids of all ages.

Babies and toddlers can safely watch them inside the enclosure, which can be brought down to their level, and then put back out of reach again. Once they are able to be gentle, they can stroke them or let them walk on their clothing or arm. (My youngest daughter was about 1.5 years old when we first brought phasmids home. She loved them then, and still does now!)

Phasmids are also great for preschoolers. I’ve brought phasmids in to visit preschool on several occasions. The kids can study them through the enclosure, and those brave enough can take turns handling them (with close supervision).

Phasmids make great pets for older kids too – who might take on more of the responsibility of caring for them. My eldest daughter is 7 years old now, and she still loves showing off her pet insects to her friends (although she hasn’t quite taken on the responsibility part yet!)

Toddler holding a spiny leaf phasmid

Having phasmids as pets is a great way to expose kids to biology (the study of living organisms) and entomology (the study of insects) in a caring and nurturing way. They’re safe for little kids to touch, as they don’t bite or sting. Plus, did I mention they’re easy to look after?

But first, in case you’re wondering what on earth phasmids are?

Phasmids are insects that eat leaves, and resemble leaves or sticks for camouflage. There are about 3000 species of phasmid worldwide. Many are referred to as stick insects, stick-bugs or walking sticks. The ones we have are spiny leaf phasmids (also known as Macleay’s Spectre).

Male spiny leaf phasmid nymph

I can show you how to set up a DIY portable phasmid enclosure, for just a few dollars! But before we get into how to look after them, let me tell you a little bit about them – they’re really cool!

adult male spiny leaf phasmid

The {Fascinating} Life Cycle of a Spiny Leaf Phasmid

Spiny leaf phasmids go though an incomplete metamorphosis – that is they have only three stages of their life cycle: egg, nymph and adult. But there’s two really cool things about spiny leaf phasmids: the relationship they have with the ants, and how they can clone themselves! Let me explain….


Adult females lay a single egg, about once a day or so. These eggs have a sweet knob on one end. In the ‘wild’, eggs fall to the ground, where they are picked up by ants, and carried back to their nest. The ants eat the sweet knob (yum!), and leave the rest of the egg in their nest, thus offering the egg protection from predators who might be leery of an ant bite. Ant nests are also sandy, which provides the eggs with the dry environment they need to hatch. Baby nymphs look, and act, very similar to red-headed black ants (but with curlier tails) which is their first form of camouflage.

This relationship with ants is called a “symbiotic relationship”. Both species benefit – the ants gets a free meal, and the phasmids gain protection, an appropriate egg-hatching environment, and initial camouflage.

Four year old holding a spiny leaf phasmid insect egg


Nymph spiny leaf phasmids leave the ants nest and quickly climb a tree, where they’ll spend the rest of their lives. They eat leaves, and drink rain drops or dew. They first molt (shed their outer skin or exoskeleton) when they are a just few days old, and change from looking like an ant, to looking like a dried up old leaf. If scared, they sway, to look like a leaf blowing in the breeze. They continue to grow and molt until they reach adult size.

Baby nymph spiny leaf phasmid insect

Female spiny leaf phasmid nymph

Molted exoskeletons of male and female spiny leaf phasmid insects


Spiny leaf insects change in appearance quite significantly with their last molt. The adult males are dark grey/brown colour, with thin straight bodies and long wings. They can fly short distances. The females are much larger, with thick clay coloured bodies with spiky lumps along their backs, a curled tail and very small wings, which are ineffective, as the females can’t fly. But here’s another cool bit. Adult females lay about an egg a day, but they don’t need a male to fertilise them necessarily, because they’re able to clone themselves, in a process called parthenogenesis. (So cool!) With spiny leaf phasmids, only female offspring can be produced through parthenogenesis. (Fertilised eggs on the other hand, can produce either male or female offspring).

Adult spiny leaf insect (phasmid)

Adult female spiny leaf phasmid insect

But what makes spiny leaf phasmids such great pets?

I’m glad you asked!

One reason they’re great as pets is because they’re safe for little kids to handle. They don’t bite or sting. Their whole defence mechanism is camouflage – so if they get scared, they just sway trying to look like a leaf in the breeze.

Why spiny leaf phasmids make great insect pets, and how to make an easy DIY enclosure

The only tricky thing is that they are rather fragile. You have to teach kids not to use their fingers to pick phasmids up (lest they squish them or tear off a leg), but rather to let the phasmid walk on themselves.

A preschool girl and her pet spiny leaf phasmid insect (adult male)

Phasmids instinctively want to move forwards and upwards, so if you just put your hand (or any other object) slightly above and in front of them, they’ll generally step up of their own accord. And they are very good at hanging on, actually preferring to be vertical or upside down.

Some kids don’t like the feeling of phasmids walking on their skin – it can feel like a tickle (for younger nymphs and males) or feel a bit prickly (for the adult females). Many kids might prefer to just look, tough gently with their finger, or let the phasmids walk on their clothes instead of directly on their skin. If a leg does get torn off (eep!), phasmids can actually regrow their lost limbs (which is kinda cool in an unfortunate way.)

Spiny leaf phasmids make great pets for toddlers

Another reason spiny leaf insects make great pets is that they don’t need much day-to-day care. Once you have your enclosure set up, it takes about 20 minutes, 2-3 times a week to replace their leaves and clean out their enclosure, plus a few seconds a day to give them a quick water spray to drink.

A third reason, is that looking after phasmids encourages kids to love nature! These insects are a great gateway to learning about habitats, life cycles, metamorphosis, the food chain, parthenogenesis, insect body structure, camouflage, and much more!

Spiny leaf phasmids make great insect pets for kids

A fourth reason, is that its really easy to make a light-weight and portable enclosure. Our enclosure is light enough that my 4 year old can hold it on her lap in the car. This means you can take your phasmids with you to visit preschool! It also means you can take your phasmids to a friend’s house for them to pet-sit while you’re on holidays (or you could even take your phasmids on vacation with you.)

How to set up an easy, portable (and affordable) phasmid insect enclosure

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We’ve tried out several different phasmid insect enclosure designs over the past few years, and below is the type we’ve found to be the most effective. This design lets you keep the phasmids indoors, gives easy access to replace the leaves, allows lots of air flow, and is light-weight and portable.

New DIY insect enclosure

You’ll need:

  • A mesh waste paper bin / wastebasket (like this black one – or if you’d prefer fashionable pets, you might prefer to buy one in pink, silver, red, or white!)
  • Basic insect screen mesh (similar to this) and a large rubber band (like these)
  • an upcycled jam jar with a narrow opening (or make a narrow opening by hammering a hole in the centre of the lid)
  • sticky tack (like this)
  • basic water spray bottle (like this)
  • secateurs or pruning shears (like these) and a nearby eucalyptus tree with healthy low-hanging leaves
  • A plastic container partially filled with river sand (or vermiculite), with air holes punched into the lid (optional – only needed if you have adult females and wish to collect eggs)

You’ll probably have many of these items at home already. The only things we had to buy were the a wastebasket and a piece of fly screen mesh, which we picked up from our local hardware store for under $10. Not a bad price for a new pet enclosure, don’t you think?

Before we set our enclosure up, I first hammered a hole in the jar lid (making sure not to leave any sharp edges), so that we’d have a hole large enough to put branches in easily, but not too large that the nymphs might drown. If you want to skip this step, try to find a jar that has a narrow opening at the top.

To make your enclosure:

Fill the jar with water, screw on the lid (if using), and tack the jar to the bottom of the wastebasket. Add fresh branches of leaves.

New phasmid enclosure set up

Cut a large circle of insect screen mesh and secure to the top of the wastebasket with a large elastic band.

Double check that there is enough vertical space in your enclosure for your phasmids to hang freely from a branch while they molt. And then add your insects! The mesh makes it easy for them to climb all over the enclosure, and it enables lots of fresh air.

You’ll need to spray your enclosure with water several times a day. I set my spray bottle to mist setting, and spray straight through the mesh. The phasmids drink the tiny droplet as if they were dew. (Please make sure you use a new or clean water spray bottle – that is, not one that might have had any previous cleaning products inside, or you might poison them!)

Also, speaking of poisoning, remember to not use insect spray anywhere near your enclosure!

Change the leaves every 3 days or so (although you can leave it longer at a pinch), and replenish water in the jar to keep the leaves fresh.

Regularly clean up the phasmid poo (which look like little brown pellets). If you have adult females, you can also collect eggs.  Store the eggs in a plastic container with river sand (or vermiculite, as we use). Add holes to the lid of your container to allow air flow. In spring, leave the container on a windowsill in the sunshine, and spray gently with water every few days, and you might get some nymphs hatching next spring! (Be patient though – some eggs can take up to 2 years to hatch…)

Sorting through phasmid poo for eggs

Spiny leaf phasmid eggs amongst poo pellets (scat)

Phasmid eggs in vermiculite

Female spiny leaf phasmid insect

Face of an adult female spiny leaf phasmid insect

For more information:

  • The two articles Care of Stick Insects and Leaf and Stick Insects: Order Phasmatodea by The Australian Museum are a great information source for keeping phasmids in a home or classroom environment.
  • ABC’s Creature Features has a Spiny Leaf Insects page with a quick summary on caring for pet phasmids for kids.
  • We received our spiny leaf insects from two friends, both of whom have successfully bred them in their home enclosures. According to the internet you can buy some online here. I’ve also seen some for sale in our local pet stores!

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Create cool mushroom spore prints! Fun nature science activity that kids can do at home.

How to make a mushroom spore print - nature science for kids

Did you know you can make a natural spore print from a mushroom? Like, really easily? So awesome!

Suitable for

Try this as a nature science activity for preschoolers or kindergarteners. My 4.5 year old daughter Bumble Bee thought this was the coolest thing ever!

Older kids might also like to try scraping off some spores and studying them under a microscope afterwards.

How to make a mushroom spore print

You can actually make a spore print with any mushroom, and apparently different mushrooms have different coloured spores and create different patterns, which is so awesome.

We decided to use a large field mushroom (also called portobella or open cap mushroom) since we’d bought one from the store earlier that day.

We used:

  • a large field mushroom
  • a sharp knife
  • a piece of white paper
  • water
  • hairspray

Step 1: Buy a mushroom that has its gills mostly protected (or if its gills are exposed, try to choose one that’s as fresh as possible).

Note: if you’re going to pick a wild mushroom, don’t eat it unless you know its not poisonous! And please wash your hands carefully afterwards.

Field mushroom

Step 2: Cut off the lower portion of the mushroom, exposing the gills. This should also ensure that the stem is flush with the underside.

If it’s a store-bought mushroom, see if your kids will snack on the off-cuts. Bumble Bee thought it was delicious! (Somehow food always tastes better when you’re playing with it, don’t you think?)

Cutting the rim off a field mushroom

Step 3: Place the top section of the mushroom gill-side down on a piece of paper.  (We used regular printer paper, but I think slightly thicker paper would have been better. We’ll try that next time.)

Step 4: Add a few drops of water to the top of the mushroom cap to encourage the spores to drop. Cover with an upside-down box, and set it aside somewhere where it won’t be disturbed. Leave overnight.

Add a few drops of water to the top of the mushroom

Step 5: The next day, gently lift the box and the mushroom, and you should see a beautiful spore print on the paper underneath!

Mushroom spore print

Each individual spore is incredibly teeny tiny, but on mass they look really impressive. I love the way you can clearly see the shape of the gills. Isn’t it fascinating!

Mushroom spore print - fun nature science for kids

If you want to preserve your spore print, you can spray it with hairspray and let dry.

Or if you’d rather study the spores under a microscope, you can scrape off some of the spores with a needle, and place the spores on a microscope slide. Place a drop of water on the spores and cover with a cover slip. (We haven’t tried this yet – but I’m super keen to do this next time!)

Biology for kids - making mushroom spore prints

Depending on how hot and humid your house was overnight, you might even be able to eat the rest of the mushroom! Mmmm, grilled mushroom on toast anyone?

Making field mushroom spore prints

 Mushroom Facts

Mushrooms are part of a larger group of organisms known as fungi. Fungi are more closely related to animals than to plants.

Most fungi reproduce by releasing tiny spores that then germinate (sprout) and grow into a new fungus.

Mushroom spores are tiny, and can only be seen individually with a microscope. On a mature mushroom, thousands of spores can grow on just one gill!

Different mushrooms have different coloured spores, Mushroom spores can be white, brown, black, or many shades in between!

Find more information about making spore prints from different types of mushrooms here.

Make a mushroom spore print - nature science for kids

This only the second time we’ve tried making a spore print. So far we’ve found it a fun and easy process. It’s making me keen to try making spore prints from different types of mushrooms, and maybe even make a mushroom spore print craft! Stay tuned!

Nature science - make a mushroom spore print

We’ve got lots more ideas on our Nature Science Activities page, including:

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How to make a paper plate ladybird (or ladybug) craft, with rotating elytra and hidden wings underneath! Fun biology / nature science project for kids.

Anatomy of a ladybird craft, with elytra and wings

Did you see the paper plate ladybird life cycle craft that I shared last week? (If not, you can check it out here). My daughter and I made it to celebrate the loveliness of ladybirds that appear in our backyard each spring and summer. (Loveliness is the collective noun for a group of ladybirds – isn’t that the coolest thing ever!!)

(In case you’re wondering, ladybird, ladybug and lady beetle are all the same animal – they are just called different things in different countries. Technically they are called coccinellids, but I’ve never heard anyone actually call them that. We call them ladybirds here in Australia…)

Anyway back to our story. Shortly afterwards, my daughter found another species of ladybird at a nearby park!! This one was orange and black, and had v shaped markings on it’s back (which, as we’ve since discovered, is a type of ladybird called a Transverse Ladybird). She brought it home to show me.

Orange and black Transverse Ladybird

Tiny transverse ladybird with orange and black markings

Transverse ladybird

And so, of course, this got us thinking about different types of ladybirds, the anatomy of ladybirds, what each species eats, where they live, etc.

Here’s a fantastic website that delves into basic ladybird anatomy. Did you know that a ladybird’s ‘shell’ is actually called the elytra, and underneath the elytra, there is a hidden set of wings?

We decided to make a ladybird craft, for three different species of ladybirds:

  • The orange and black Transverse Ladybird with v shaped markings is the type of ladybird my daughter Bumble Bee found in the park that morning.
  • The yellow and black Fungus-eating Ladybird has zigzag markings. These are the ladybirds we often find in our own backyard.
  • The red and black Seven-spot Ladybird (also known as the Seven-spotted Ladybug), has three spots on each side and one spot in the middle. This is the most common ladybird in Europe, and is the ladybird we most often see in children’s picture books.

Seven-spot ladybird craft for kids, with hidden wings!

Suitable for

This is a fun craft idea that uses common craft supplies and other everyday items.

Preschoolers will enjoy learning generally about ladybirds, and should be able to help paint the paper plates (with an adult assisting with the rest of the craft). Kindergarteners may be able to do more of the craft themselves, and learn about basic insect anatomy. Older kids may enjoy researching ladybirds in more detail, including variations between different ladybird species, their markings, their habitats, their diet, etc.

Bumble Bee had just turned 4 years old when we did this activity. She enjoyed painting the paper plates, and “helping” me with the rest of the craft. She also enjoyed learning about the various ladybirds that we’ve come across, and their basic anatomy. Plus she really enjoyed role-playing with her new ladybird toys afterwards!

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Make a paper plate ladybird and learn about beetle anatomy


How to make a paper plate ladybird

We used:

The first thing we did was to look at our real life samples of ladybirds (for the fungus-eating ladybird and the transverse ladybird), and online (for the seven-spot ladybird) to get an idea of their basic shape, colours and markings.

We noticed that each ladybird has a head with two antenna, a section just behind the head (the pronotum), a body with brightly coloured elytra, and three tiny legs on each side. We noticed that the elytra is symmetrical – with exactly the same markings appearing on each side. We also noticed that ladybirds have hidden wings, that are folded away under the elytra when a ladybird is not flying.

We used two paper plates for each ladybird craft. We painted the underside of the first paper plate black, and set aside to dry. This would become the ladybird body.

We cut the second paper plate like this below, to create a head, and the two sides of the elytra, or shell.

(If you were doing this with older kids, you might like to add more detail to the head area, adding in the eyes, the mouth and the pronotum.)ladybird cut lines

We referenced our real and online ladybirds to see what colours and patterns to paint. We painted the underside again (which creates a doming effect, making our ladybirds look slightly 3D).

While we waited for the paper plates to dry, we cut two long wings from a plastic bag – roughly twice the length of the ladybird’s body.

We also cut one regular black pipe cleaner into six small pieces, which would become the legs, and a second black “bump” pipe cleaner into two pieces, which would become the antenna.

(We used bumpy pipe cleaners because we had them already and they look cool! But you could use regular pipe cleaners for the antenna too if you want).

Once the paper plates were dry, we glued the head to the body. I poked two holes though, so we could add the antenna, twisting into little knots at each end to stop them slipping back out (and to make cute knobbly antenna ends!)

We stapled the six legs to the sides of the body as well. (Bumble Bee loves using the stapler, so she really enjoyed that part!)

Next we glued the plastic wings to just below the head. (You could use double sided sticky tape here instead if you prefer).

How to make a paper plate ladybug

Then we attached the two elytra pieces on top, attaching with a split pin. I used a knife with a sharp point to create the holes, before pushing the split pins through and fastening underneath. Here’s how it looks on the underside.

Paper plate ladybug craft

When we flipped it back over, we could now choose whether to fold the wings neatly underneath if we were pretending our ladybird was walking, or rotate the elytra slightly and release the wings if we were pretending our ladybird was flying.

Fungus-eating ladybird craft

Paper plate ladybug craft for kids

Paper plate ladybird (or ladybug) craft, including three different ladybird species. Fun nature science activity for kids

How to make a ladybird (ladybug) craft with hidden wings! And learn about three different ladybird species. Fun biology entomology nature scien

Fun Science Facts

Coccinellidae is a widespread family of tiny beetles, known as ladybugs in North America, and ladybirds in Australia, UK and other areas.

Entomologists prefer to use the term ladybird beetles or lady beetles, because technically they’re not actually classified a ‘true bugs’.

A “bug” is actually a technical term which describes insects that have sucking, beak-like mouth parts. Bugs also have an incomplete metamorphosis life cycle – meaning they go from egg to nymph to adult with no larva stage. Aphids, cicadas, bedbugs are all true bugs. Beetles are not.

Beetles are a group of insects whose front wings have hardened into wing-cases, elytra, distinguishing them from most other insects. They are the largest order of insects: roughly 400,000 species make up about 40% of all insect species described, and about 25% of all animals – wow! Most beetles undergo complete metamorphosis, passing through four main stages: egg, larva, pupa and adult.

More light reading: A Bug Is Not A Beetle (American Scholar)

Paper plate ladybird (ladybug) craft, with wings! And learn about three different species of ladybird.

If you’re looking for more fun activities like this, check out our Biology archives, including:

Paperplate lifecycle of the fungus-eating ladybird (ladybug)- fun nature study activity

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And, of course, you can always subscribe to our newsletter, to receive all our latest activities straight in your Inbox. We’d love to have you join us!

How to make paper plate ladybirds (ladybugs) and learn about different ladybird or ladybug species. Fun insect entomology biology nature scienc

* This post contains affiliate link(s) to similar products used. An affiliate link means I may earn a referral fee or commission if you make a purchase through my link, without any extra cost to you. It helps to keep this little project afloat. Thank you so much for your support.